A Travellerspoint blog

Chapter 28 - Israel and Palestine

By Neil and Nikki

sunny 25 °C


Wow! Our time in Israel and Palestine was amazingly intense and incredibly thought provoking.

We started in Tel Aviv before heading off to Jerusalem and the Palestinian West Bank.

The political and security landscape in Israel and Palestine is very complex and for this blog we’ve decided to split the blog into three main sections;

- the religious/archaeological sites of Jerusalem and the West Bank;
- the political, land and security aspects; and
- our impressions of Israel and Palestine.



After a great meal and conversation in Tel Aviv with Uriel, an Israeli bloke we met in Nicaragua, and his wife, we headed off to Jerusalem, and Nik got a bit of an understanding about the size of Israel. It’s tiny. From the north to the south is 424 km and its widest point is 114 km. It has an area of less than 21,000 square km’s. Victoria, our home state in Australia, is 482,000 square km’s. The distance from Tel- Aviv to Jerusalem is just 67 km. It took an hour on the bus.

Because the politics in Israel and Palestine is, to say the least, complicated, I’ve included a map of the area from 1947, before partition. During our visit, we spent time in Jenin, Nablus, Ramallah, Jerusalem and drove though Beersheba to our border crossing at Eilat/Aqaba in the south. Tel Aviv is near Jaffa.

Ah, Jerusalem, the ‘Holy City’! The centre of Christianity, the third most holy site in Islam, the most holy place in Judaism. An ancient city that has, for 4,000 years, been under the control of dozens of kings, patriarchs, caliphs, commanders, governors, sultans and colonial powers, of the Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Polytheist faiths. And very rarely in this long history, have they co-existed peaceably. There is nowhere on earth to which the term ‘melting pot’ would better apply.

Jerusalem has been built, destroyed, built and destroyed literally dozens of times.

Unbeknownst to us, we happened to arrive on the first day of Sukkot, the weeklong Jewish festival of the Tabernacle. As one of the three holy festivals in the Jewish calendar, Jerusalem was absolutely crammed full of Jewish locals and visitors, of the moderate, orthodox and ultra-orthodox persuasions. Women in their headscarves and men in yamaluks or other headwear depending on their sect. This also coincided with an annual Christian march, with hundreds of overseas visitors from many countries bustling to take part.

Nowhere better tells the story of the history of Jerusalem than the historic quarters of the Old City, as you can see from the map below. There are distinct Muslim, Jewish, Armenian and Christian areas within the city, that have existed for millennia.

We stayed in the Old City, near David’s Tower and the Jaffa Gate. Our hostel was surrounded by the Muslim souk (market), pilgrim route to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and main path to the Western Wall. We went to bed to the sounds of worship and celebrations and woke to the early morning call for prayer.

Map of the Old City in Jerusalem with its distinct quarters. The Armenians have over the centuries become a natural buffer between the other sectors of the population, and are friendly with each of them.

Neither Nik or I have ever been to another country where there is so much history, be it cultural, political or religious, to be absorbed in such a small space. From top to bottom both Palestine and Israel are dotted with sites of huge historical and religious importance. We covered a lot of ground in our eight days, but had no hope of seeing all of the sites we wished to, especially at such a busy time of year. We had to forgo the iconic immersion in the Dead Sea, a tour to Nazareth and visit inside the Temple Mount and Dome of the Rock, although we had an amazing view from our vantage point on the Mount of Olives.

A view of the Old City of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, with a Jewish cemetery in the foreground. The golden roofed Dome of the Rock is in the centre, atop the Temple Mount and still surrounded by the base of the walls of Herod’s Palace.

Although now a place of Islamic worship and not accessible to non-Muslims, the Dome of the Rock is the most holy site for both Jews and Muslims. It is the site where Adam was created, Abraham almost sacrificed his son Isaac, as well as the where the original temple of Solomon, containing the Holy of Holies (and Ark of the Covenant), was located. It was also visited by Muhammad on his night journey. Herod built over the site about the time of Christ with his Palace and Temple, the walls of which still survive today, nearly all buried under millennia of building and re-building in the Old City.

It is for this reason that the Western Wall, sometimes referred to as the Wailing Wall (for the sounds of Jewish prayer emanating from this site), is such an important site for Jewish people. It is the ‘Western Wall’ of Herod’s enormous temple and the closest that they are able to pray to the Temple Rock. Today this is where Jewish people come to pray every single day.

The Western Wall of the Temple Mount, the closest site to the former Temple of the Rock that Jewish people can pray. Men (foreground) and women (background) pray separately.

A view of the Western Wall from the tunnels beneath the Old City. Originally a part of the enormous Palace of Herod, the city has slowly been built up around the ancient remains of the walls, eventually swallowing them almost completely. They were rediscovered again in the 1800’s and have now been excavated down four or five stories under the existing Old City.

One of the holiest sites for Christians in Jerusalem is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This church surrounds the agreed site of Jesus’ crucifixion, the slab that he was laid on after being taken down from the cross, and the tomb from which he arose. It is a place where you can feel the history and importance to many denominations of the Christian faith.

Due to the desire of each arm of Christianity to control the church, each room is under the specific control of the different sects, including Greek Orthodox, the Armenian Orthodox, Roman Catholics and Copts. The different sects are incredibly protective of their allocated share of the church and, in 1853, a conflict that has been called World War Zero, started because of some argy bargy between the sects. At the end of the war in 1856, the control of the church reverted to what it was in 1853 and no changes were allowed to the church. Hence the story of the LADDER. You see it there against the upper window. It’s been there since before 1853 and no-one can move it! The key and responsibility for access to the door of the church was also given into the custody of two Arab families in the 12th Century, who lock and unlock the church every evening and morning, to ensure no one sect controls access to the Church.

The glass in the bottom left covers the stone where it is believed the crucifixion of Jesus took place. There is a place where the pilgrim is kneeling that one can reach in and touch the original stone.

This stone immediately inside the Church door, is believed to be the stone that Jesus’ body was laid on when brought down from the cross. It apparently only was placed in the church in the 1800s and so there are some questions about its authenticity. However, the important issue is what people believe in.

And this is small chapel inside the Church contains the grotto where it is believed that Jesus was buried and the stone which covered his tomb.

The Via Dolorosa, the Way of Sorrows, is the path that Jesus took from when he was sentenced for crucifixion to Golgotha, where he died. There are 14 stops along the Way, marking different events in this path, such as Simon assisting Jesus in carrying the cross, and it culminates at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. We wandered along the Way as we headed out to the Mount of Olives.

Station three of the Via Dolorosa.

We even accidently stumbled across the Garden of Gethsemane! For those not in the know, this is the site where Jesus prayed and the disciples slept the night before his crucifixion. As is the case with many holy sites in Jerusalem, there are a couple of proposed sites for this event, although this one seems to be the once most accepted as likely. The trees in the garden have been carbon dated to 3000 years old and would have been standing in this location at the time of Jesus.

The Garden of Gethsemane. Some of the trees have been carbon dated at up to 3000 years old, and as you can see from the girth of some of them, they are ancient.

The latest time the Jewish Quarter was destroyed was in 1948 and when Israel got control of it again in 1967 they started to rebuild. During the reconstruction they found part of the city wall dated from the period 1000 to 586 BC. It’s interesting how Jerusalem has moved west over the past 3000 years. The ruins of the City of David in fact now sit outside the current walls of the old city.

Remnants of the City Walls uncovered when the Jewish Quarter was rebuilt after the Israel/Jordanian War.

There is religion in Jerusalem and then there is something that crosses all religious boundaries; Hummus! The exact formula with which it’s made (basically it is chickpeas, lemon juice, tahini, olive oil and cumin) can be a closely guarded secret and there is much discussion about which is the best hummus in town….

Hummus Heaven. A religion unto itself.

The West Bank

During our stay we joined a number of tours to take us into the West Bank. For two of these days we had a Palestinian guide and on the third, when in highly disputed Hebron, we had a local Palestinian guide in the morning and a Jewish guide from the settlements in the afternoon. It provided a fascinating if stark contrast.

On the first day in the West Bank, we started with a visit to Ramallah before moving on to Jericho. The land immediately surrounding Jerusalem is dry and harsh, but inhabited by local Bedouin tribes who can been seen herding goats and living in basic settlements.

The hills of Judea, looking down towards the Dead Sea, with a Bedouin Camp on the far left.

This is the area where Jesus, having been baptised by John the Baptist, spent time in the wilderness and was tested. Looking up from Jericho, the lowest city in the world at 480 metres below sea level, we looked up to a hill called Mount Quarantina where Jesus fasted for 40 days after his baptism. The cave where Jesus fasted is below the Monastery of the Temptation you can see halfway up the hill on the left hand side.

The Monastery of the Temptation on Mount Quarantina.

Archaeological excavations have shown evidence that Jericho is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Now located to the north of the new town, the excavations at Jericho have revealed that 23 different civilisations have lived contiguously on this site, including in a walled city as early as 3000 B.C. The round structure below is a grain silo dating from 10,000 B.C., one of the oldest known manmade structures showing a settled civilisation with agricultural skills.

Excavations at Jericho showing the site of the Old City of Jericho.

Next to the archaeologcal site is Elisha’s Spring. In the Bible, Elisha was a prophet and the spring in Jericho was no longer producing sweet, or good, water. The people, to test Elisha, asked him if he could make the water sweet. He did, and the spring is still flowing.

Visitors are welcome to drink from Elisha’s Fountain, with the spring still providing water to the local town.

On driving through Jericho town we saw sycamore trees that have been dated at over 2000 years old, and would have been here when Jesus walked this path to the Jordan River and a Roman tax collector climbed a tree for a better view. We then went to the site on the River Jordan where Jesus was baptised by John the Baptist.

This is, now, the River Jordan. On the far side is Jordan. For a long time Israel did not allow access from their side, so various Christian groups, Greek Orthodox etc., built churches on the Jordan side.

Also located in the West Bank is Bethlehem and the Church of the Nativity, built on the site where it is believed Jesus was born. As you can imagine this is a significant pilgrimage site for many Christians. It was very interesting to visit and witness the fervour which it inspires.

The Silver Star in the grotto under the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem indicates the place where it is believed that Jesus was born. This appears to be one of the least disputed of the Holy sites in Christendom.

And this is the site of the manager where Jesus lay when receiving the three wise men.

The following day, we headed across to the West Bank again this time to Hebron, which was where Abraham lived. He and his wife, Sarah, had many children one of whom was Isaac. Abraham purchased a cave for her burial and this is now located under the Temple of Patriarchs and Matriarchs built by King Herod. It is now half a mosque and half a synagogue. Depending on who you ask, the other half is bigger…. It is the oldest temple in the region and is about 2000 years old.

Inside of the Mosque in the Arab ‘half’ of the temple to the Matriarchs and Patriarchs, with a view of the cenotaphs of Isaac and Rebekah.

The outside of the Temple of the Matriarchs and Patriarchs that was built by King Herod and completed in 65 A.D.

We were in Israel and Palestine during the festival of Sukkot. Now in the Synagogue half of the Temple, our Jewish guide shows us how he prays with the ritual Palm, Willow, Myrtle and Citron specific to this celebration.

Also on our walk through Hebron there are the ruins of the city wall and the steps leading to the city gate, both of which are about 4,500 years old.

Tel Hebron, excavations have revealed steps that have been aged to the time of Abraham and Sarah, who would have walked these streets.

Our final day in the West Bank saw us travelling north to Nablus and Jenin. In Nablus we encountered more biblical history, this time in relation to the Samaritan people. Samaritans are a religious sect that at this site can trace the lineage of their Chief Priest back to Ancient Times. There numbers are now down to only a few hundred in this location, mainly as a result of not allowing intermarriage with any non-Samaritans. Due to their insular ways, they were often a reviled people and were shunned by the other religions. We visited Mount Gerizim which is the Holy place for the Samaritans.

The steps up to the Samaritan Holy place of Mount Gerizim

A familiar biblical story to some may be that of the Samaritan woman who offered Jesus a drink from a well. We visited this well, built by Jacob, the son of Isaac and Rebecca and the father or Joseph of the Dreamcoat fame. Jacob dug the well, and it was here during the start of Jesus’ ministry that he drank at the well after having asked for help from a Samaritan woman. Interaction between Jews and Samaritans was banned at this time in the Talmud.

Jacob’s well near Nablus.


The political and security aspects of Israel and Palestine.

Crikey. As we are writing this, it’s a week since we’ve left Jerusalem and the West Bank and, as we wrote earlier, the situation is complicated. However, the job of this blog, partly for us, partly for you, is to give an overview, and our view, on what we have seen and our thoughts.

In Chapter 26, our chapter on volunteering in Greece, we wrote that we believe that there will be peace in Syria, it is purely a question of how long it will take. And yes, how many lives will be destroyed, or changed forever, and how much of Syria is destroyed.

With the Israel/Palestine conflict, we have to believe that there will be peace, however, there are clearly some things that need to happen. I’ll come back to that later. First of all though, let’s take a look at the history. Well, sort of, let’s go back 100 years.

Following the First World War, the British and the French divided among themselves the Arab areas that had been under the control of the Ottomans, and Palestine came under British rule as the British Mandate for Palestine.

Between 1918 and 1937, there was a simmering war between the Jewish and Muslim people in Palestine, partly due to the significant immigration of Jews to Palestine, and by 1937 an idea for partition had gained favour, with the thoughts that it should look like this:



The Palestinian Partition was adopted by the UN on 29th November 1947, and Great Britain announced that its mandate would end on 14th May 1948. Immediately after the adoption of the resolution to partition Palestine on 29th November 1947, civil war broke out between the Jews and the Muslims. Upon the end of the British mandate on 14th May 1948, the State of Israel was declared, and the Arabic nations started their invasion in June 1948.


However, with the memory of 6 million murdered Jews on their mind, and their backs to the Mediterranean, the Israeli’s fought back and the borders from 1949 were:


In 1967 there was the 6 day war, and in 1973 the Yom Kippur war.

After all of that the map looked like this:


In 1979, there was the Egypt – Israel Peace Treaty which resulted in the handback of the Sinai.

In 1993 and 1995, there were the Oslo Accords. These were significant because:

- Israel recognised the Palestine Liberation Organisation as representative of the Palestinian people.
- The PLO recognised the State of Israel.
- They split the West Bank into Areas A (controlled solely by the Palestinian Authority), Area B (controlled by the Palestinian Authority and Israel), and Area C (controlled by Israel).


This is when it all turned into a hideous, horrible mess. Ok, a more hideous, more horrible mess. And this is where we come back to our earlier comment about the precursors for peace, and for the peace to continue.

In order for there to be peace, there must be certain conditions in place, including:

- Both sides must want peace, it may sound trite, but it’s true;
- Both sides must need peace more than they need war. There can be drivers for or against war; for example, politics, financial gain etc.;
- There must be a leader on both sides who has the respect and authority to not only negotiate the peace, but to drive the actions that will be required by the peace agreement;
- There must be an extraordinarily skilled mediator to lead the parties through the process.

And, with the Oslo Accords, the following is where it fell to pieces.

On the Israeli side, Yitzak Rabin, the Prime Minister of Israel was assassinated by Jewish extremists shortly after the peace accords were signed. The aftermath of this bought into power Benjamin Netanyahu, who has a disdain for peace and Palestinians. His support for the building of settlements in the West Bank, the massive security effort that entails, the building of the wall (and the building of the wall where it is), the exclusion of the Palestinians from Area C, the limitation of the supply of resources (water, etc), has been appalling, shocking and antagonistic.

On the Palestinian side, the inability of Yassar Arafat to control the Palestinians to not attack Israel, was awful, provoking, and left the Israelis with little choice but to defend themselves.

The Israelis provided the coffin for the Oslo Accords, the Palestinians provided the lid and nailed it down.


Our experiences on the West Bank

We wanted, during our time in Israel and Palestine, to try to get as much of an understanding as we could about the situation. To do this, we spent three days in the West Bank and four in Jerusalem and Israel. In the first section, we showed you the religious and archaeological sites that we visited, in this section we want to share what we saw and what we heard.

In Ramallah is the tomb of Yassar Arafat. He is a fascinating figure that had peace in his hands with the Oslo Accords and either couldn’t, or wouldn’t, keep the paramilitary sections of the Palestinian people from attacking Israel (notwithstanding that there was significant Israeli provocation). To some he is a murderous terrorist, others a leader to liberation.

He wanted to be buried in Jerusalem but the Israeli’s wouldn’t allow this so the Palestinians dug up soil from the Mosque area in Jerusalem and brought it to Ramallah and buried him there.

Note that there is a temple next to his tomb but there is no minaret (as would be typical on a mosque). Yassar Arafat said that he wanted the temple to be for all Palestinians; Muslims, Christians, and Jews.

Driving around the West Bank, we saw this sign:

Israelis are not allowed to travel in Area A. Well, sort of. Unless you’re an Israeli settler and then the Israeli Army supplies a massive armed force for your protection.

We thought that this was a provocative sign placed by the Palestinians, but in fact they are signs put up by the Israeli government, discouraging any travel (including tourism) into the West Bank. We felt incredibly safe the entire time we were in both Israel and Palestine. However, we were tourists….

Banksy has both painted and inspired many images in the West Bank, which we were lucky enough to visit…

Iconic Banksy painted on the side of the mechanic store on the Road from Ramallah to Bethlehem.

More Banksy, with some interesting iconography…

Others have painted brilliant images too.

Street art abounds in Palestine, with one resounding theme.

We went to see a section of the Berlin Wall in July. That’s not a wall. This is a wall…

The wall separating central Bethlehem, splitting the city in two and separating families.

With the wall, there are two aspects, the first is that there is a wall. To an extent, with the security issues that Israel experienced, I can understand that the wall has increased that safety of the Israelis. What is provocative and unforgiveable is that they have been built through Palestinian Areas, dividing families and making it incredibly difficult to get anywhere. I find it aggressively antagonistic. And I’m not Palestinian. Take a look at the map above showing the Oslo accords and it’s marked on in a red line.

Also, a picture can portray a thousand words.

It is clear that Trump has a view about Israeli’s and Palestinians that is similar to Netanyahu’s. The concept of Trump driving peace discussions is patently absurd.

The Key is a powerful symbol to the Palestinians. When Israel declared itself a state in 1948 many Palestinians fled the bloodshed, locking up their homes. The key became a symbol of the Palestinian refugees.

The symbol of the Palestinian refugee struggle – the key to the houses they left at Partition.

When we visited Jenin, we also visited the refugee camp for Palestinians displaced when the partition took place 69 years ago. Each family was allocated a space for a tent. As the years stretched on, the families joined their allocations together and built share houses on them, as you can see in the photo below. These houses have apparently been removed a number of times and you can see bullet holes in the walls from the conflict that has happened here over the last seven decades. Their perspective is that they remain displaced internal refugees. Others believe that they should consider themselves resettled.

The Jenin refugee camp.

However, even in this situation there are some who can see an alternative viewpoint.

The messages on the wall are predominantly peaceful, and it has to be believed that the majority of Palestinians and Israeli’s want peace.

As mentioned above, Hebron is one of the most contested cities outside of Gaza. It is the site where Israeli encroachment into Palestinian territories have caused incredible violence over the years. Walking through Hebron we saw this note.

An Israeli sign giving their perspective on the events in Hebron. The reality is very different, with the sectors of the city divided by barbed wire and check points. We were told that the areas ‘off limits to Jews’ are in fact visited by settlers with a huge armed contingent that confine the locals to their houses and stores during these visits.

Hebron is on the front line of the conflict between the Israeli’s and the Palestinians. In 1929, 67 Jews were slaughtered by Muslims and their Synagogue destroyed. The Jews started rebuilding in the 1970’s. They took over various buildings including the apartments above a Palestinian market. The Israeli Defence Force (IDF) state that Palestinians and Israelis cannot live together so if an Israeli takes over a building the neighbours have to move out. There have been incidents of Israelis throwing things onto the people in the market so wire has been put up.

A view from the Arab market place to the Israeli checkpoint and settlement which has been built atop a Palestinian house. We were not expecting the proximity of the settlements to the Palestinian sectors. They are literally living on top of each other. In the case of the markets, there was a huge amount of rubbish on top of the wire roofing, which the Palestinians claim is thrown by the Israeli settlers, as well as hot liquids and effluent. The Israeli’s deny this allegation, and claim that most of it is wind swept rubbish or placed there by Palestinians to support their claims.

The IDF also closed down the gold market due to security concerns.

The old Arabic gold markets in Hebron that have been closed down by the Israeli military. Clearly not the thriving commercial centre mentioned on the sign above.

There are still stores that are open in the market, although it is becoming increasingly deserted. This store below has been functioning in this place for over 500 years. Most store holders told us, however, that they expect to be the last generation to operate here due to pressures to move away from the settlements and checkpoints.

A spice stall in the Arab Hebron markets. Most stalls in the market are now closed.

Our Palestinian guide also spoke to us of the terrorist attack which occurred in the Mosque at the Temple of the Patriarchs in 1994, when an Israeli gunman entered the mosque during prayer and opened fire, killing 29 worshippers. This event resulted in a four month 24 hour curfew on the Palestinian population to prevent retaliation.

However, on the Israeli side, as revealed by our guide from the settlement, there have been numerous attacks on them, which has made life in Hebron precarious. The Jewish family group below has stopped to pay respects at the memorial for a Rabbi who was killed by Palestinians who burst out of the market area behind and murdered him on the way home from synagogue.

A memorial to a murdered rabbi in Hebron.

And below is a memorial to an Israeli baby girl, shot and killed by a sniper while being held by her father near a playground in a settlement in Hebron.

The baby girls name was Flame, hence the image on her memorial. Her father survived although he was badly injured.

We were shown by our Israeli guide this image painted by Israeli school children of the different characters in Hebron and how they all can live together. Notice the only picture of a Palestinian is of a suicide bomber. We found this particularly disturbing because it was painted by children and our Jewish guide thought that this was perfectly acceptable….

Street art by local Israeli school children, including a rabbi, tourist, soldier and suicide bomber chickens. Apparently, the path to peace….

Below is a checkpoint in Hebron between the Israeli settlement and the Palestinian area. Our guide told us that in one year alone, there were SEVENTY – 70 knife attacks on the Israeli soldiers here. And the policy here is to shoot to kill. One case got particular notoriety in Israel when one attacker was shot dead, but the other only injured. An Israeli soldier who arrived after the event, then shot the injured man dead too. The soldier was eventually sentenced to prison but not before huge public debate. All Israeli’s have mandatory military service from the end of high school; 3 years for men and 2 years for women. There was an uproar about charging a soldier for “just doing his job”….

The military checkpoint where the infamous shooting took place that nearly divided a nation. The importance of accountability versus “just doing your job”…

We passed by this too….

This is a site that Jewish settlers claim belongs to them. The government is not allowing them to settle on the land in fear that any further incursions will result in the ignition of the simmering tension in Hebron. Violence seems never far away.

There seem to be innumerable examples of atrocities on both sides. The stories we heard from our Palestinian and Israeli guides in Hebron seemed to disagree on every fact, even when discribing the same events. It was an incredibly enlightening, but simultaneously discouraging day.


Future opportunities for peace.

This goes back to the points above.

- I think both sides have a reason to want peace. The military effort that the Israelis have to put in to maintaining and protecting their territory is enormous. I have never, never, ever, seen such a massive number of guns, soldiers and security forces within a civilian population. There must be 10,000 security/soldiers on the streets of Jerusalem, all armed with sub machine guns. The forces the Israelis have in the West Bank, the number of young Israeli’s in harms way, trying to keep the Palestinians caged in their towns, is huge.
- For the Palestinians, the prospect of continuing to live in the present conditions is extremely hard. Having accepted the Israel’s right to exist and Israel having accepted the PLO as the negotiating entity for Palestinians, they also want there to be peace.
- However, on the Israeli side there are, I believe, more reasons to not want peace. Look at the changes in Palestine over the last 100 years.


It appears to me that Israel wants Palestine. All of Palestine.

- For peace there needs to be leaders on both sides that want peace and that can represent and control all of their people. I believe Netanyahu doesn’t want peace. As for Abbas, I don’t know.
- As for the mediator, there are mediators that have the skills, but it is the leaders and the want that needs to be there first.

To the Israelis and Jewish people out there, I beg that you put whatever pressure you can onto Jewish entities, the Israeli government, and regular Jewish people to strive for peace, to stop and reverse the settlements in the West Bank, and to move forward with the return of the West Bank to the Palestinians.

To the Palestinians out there, I beg that you continue to work through peaceful means to get your story across to the world, to work with the UN, to work on building a prosperous Palestine, no matter how hard it may be.


Posted by capetocape2017 06:06 Archived in Israel Tagged oslo palestine jews accords

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